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Hydrogen Fuel Cell Technology and Applications: Fueling Infrastructure


Many municipalities and transportation facilities will require modifications to store, transport and accommodate hydrogen refueling. The resources below address these and other related infrastructure issues.

Fueling Infrastructure

Hydrogen Fueling Infrastructure Development, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy.

To address the issue of affordable hydrogen, the U.S. Department of Energy launched H2USA—a public-private collaboration of federal agencies, automakers, hydrogen providers, fuel cell developers, national laboratories, and other stakeholders—to advance hydrogen infrastructure development.

Hydrogen Infrastructure Integration Study report coverHydrogen Infrastructure Integration Study, Center for Transportation and the Environment, November 2021.

In this study, researchers analyze and assess opportunities, costs and benefits of using compressed natural gas  stations in the Southeast Alternative Fuel Deployment Partnership for future hydrogen fueling infrastructure locations. Compressed natural gas and hydrogen equipment and infrastructure are examined in two Waste Management  locations: Birmingham, Alabama, and Hardeeville, South Carolina.

“Refueling America,” Diane Turchetta, Carter Purcell and Sean Nyhan, Public Roads, Federal Highway Administration, Winter 2018.

To provide adequate infrastructure to keep alternative vehicles fueled, the Federal Highway Administration is considering nominations to designate alternative fueling corridors along sections of the National Highway System.

Fuel Cell Vehicle Technologies, Infrastructure and Requirements report coverFuel Cell Vehicle Technologies, Infrastructure and Requirements, Electric Vehicle Transportation Center, April 2017.

Key aspects of a hydrogen infrastructure are examined, including types of hydrogen fueling stations, station costs, station rollout strategies, and applicable codes and standards.


Establishing a Robust Hydrogen Infrastructure in the U.S., FAQ, H2USA.

Factors that will impact hydrogen infrastructure are discussed, including estimates of the number of hydrogen fueling stations that will be needed, startup costs and regulatory requirements.

Self-Sustainable Hydrogen Fueling Station fact sheetSelf-Sustainable Hydrogen Fueling Station, National Fuel Cell Research Center, 2015.

This fact sheet summarizes the design and operation of a self-sustainable hydrogen fueling station using renewable energy sources.

Hydrogen Fueling Infrastructure Analysis, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy.

Data from partners in the U.S. hydrogen fueling station industry is used to assess the availability and performance of existing stations. The data is also used to report on capacity, utilization, station build time, maintenance, fueling, geographic coverage and other factors.

Multiple States

Alternative Fuel Toolkit, Federal Highway Administration and Oregon Department of Transportation, 2018.

Stakeholder input and research from a multistate pooled fund effort address alternative fuels and vehicles, infrastructure and funding. Toolkits from a series of workshops include:


2021 Annual Evaluation of Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Deployment and Hydrogen Fuel Station Network Development report cover2021 Annual Evaluation of Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Deployment and Hydrogen Fuel Station Network Development, California Air Resources Board, September 2021.

The status of hydrogen fuel stations and markets is discussed in addition to new programs and policies.


Current Availability and Feasibility of Mobile, Fast Fill Hydrogen Refueling Stations report coverCurrent Availability and Feasibility of Mobile, Fast Fill Hydrogen Refueling Stations, California Department of Transportation, August 2019.

To encourage the transition t hydrogen-fueled vehicles, researchers review the state of the art of hydrogen refueling stations.

Hydrogen Fueling Infrastructure, California Air Resources Board.

Current infrastructure activities, policies and funding strategies are discussed.


Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Vehicles, Hawai’i Natural Energy Institute.

Hydrogen infrastructure efforts include evaluating electrolysis to produce hydrogen, demonstrating fueling infrastructure and analyzing the impact of a salt air environment on fuel cell operation and durability.


Alternative Fuels, Wisconsin Department of Transportation.

This website highlights initiatives underway in Wisconsin and efforts to designate alternative fuel corridors in the state.

Alternative Fuel signs: Electric vehicle charging station message and image, fast electric vehicle charging image, and two hydrogen fuel images.Zero Emission Vehicle Station Sign Installation Guide, California Department of Transportation, July 2021.

These guidelines provide a step-by-step process for installing signage that directs consumers to charging and fueling stations.

Gaseous Hydrogen (GH2) Vehicle Maintenance and Storage Garage Modicications report coverGaseous Hydrogen (GH2) Vehicle Maintenance and Storage Garage Modifications: Requirements and Best Practices, Marathon Technical Services USA Inc., Clean Fuels Ohio, U.S. Department of Energy, 2018.

This training presentation provides safe practices for designing, building and operating maintenance facilities for hydrogen fuel vehicles.

Tools and Resources

Hydrogen Fueling Station Tour, Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Office, U.S. Department of Energy.

This video provides a tour of a hydrogen fueling station demonstration facility administered by the Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Office.

California Hydrogen Station Map, California Fuel Cell Partnership.