big data: Large, complex data sets acquired from multiple sources.
connected infrastructure: Connectivity that extends into noninternet-enabled physical devices and everyday objects, for example, traffic signals, ramp meters, closed circuit television, dynamic message signs, vehicle detection, road weather information systems, and flood and high wind warning devices.
connected vehicle technology: Use of wireless communication technologies to establish a communication link between vehicles and/or vehicles and infrastructure. The connectivity of connected vehicles is categorized as vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V); vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I); and vehicle-to-others (V2X), such as pedestrians and other personal devices.
disruptive technologies: Innovations that displace established technologies. Also referred to as transformational technologies.
internet of things (IoT): Extending connectivity beyond conventional computing platforms, such as mobile devices and computers, into any range of noninternet-enabled physical devices and everyday objects using embedded sensors and transmitters to exchange useful data between various components in a typical system without human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction. For example, the internet of things enables vehicle-to-everything communication, which consists of vehicle-to-vehicle, vehicle-to-infrastructure and vehicle-to-pedestrian systems. By constantly analyzing real-time data, vehicle-to-everything designs a transport ecosystem where vehicles, infrastructure and people are interconnected to keep the environment safe from any type of crashes.
smart transport: See smart transportation.
smart transportation: Emerging technologies that monitor, evaluate and manage transportation systems to make transportation more efficient, more cost-effective and safer. Also referred to as smart transport.
transformational technologies: See disruptive technologies.
vehicle-to-everything (V2X): Communication that consists of vehicle-to-vehicle, vehicle-to-infrastructure and vehicle-to-pedestrian systems that interconnect vehicles, infrastructure and people through real-time data analysis. Also referred to as vehicle-to-others.
vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I): Technologies that capture vehicle-generated traffic data, wirelessly providing information such as advisories from the infrastructure to the vehicle that inform the driver of safety, mobility or environment-related conditions.
vehicle-to-others: See vehicle-to-everything.
vehicle-to-pedestrian (V2P): Systems that use sensors to detect and communicate the presence of at-risk road users such as pedestrians, bicyclists, people using wheelchairs or other mobility devices, children being pushed in strollers, and passengers embarking and disembarking buses and trains.
vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V): Communication that enables vehicles to wirelessly exchange information about their speed, location and direction.